Protektionismus ist auf dem Vormarsch, wie die FT in einem sehr guten Artikel beschreibt. Hier die Highlights ohne die lesenswerte Randgeschichte um Datendiebstähle und Wirtschaftsspionage:
- „Since the 2008 financial crisis, the world has largely avoided a new cycle of protectionism that many people feared would cause a repeat of the tit-for-tat erection of trade barriers that economists believe extended the Great Depression in the 1930s.“ – bto: was sicherlich der Fall war.
- „Policymakers, though, are worrying about the new methods countries are using to protect their industries. Whether in the innovative use of old laws, as in the US Steel case, or new standards on encryption and labelling, world trade is experiencing a wave of protectionism.“
- „According to data compiled by Global Trade Alert, governments took more than 400 discriminatory actions against foreign competitors between January and August. Such measures are also being put into effect faster. Compared with the same period in 2009, four times as many protectionist measureswere introduced.“ – bot: was auch nicht überraschen kann.
- „Perhaps most worryingly for economists and policymakers, the new wave of protectionism predates the emergence of antitrade populists such as Donald Trump, the Republican nominee for the US presidency, and the public backlash against globalisation.“
- „Concern has been amplified by the decline in global trade, which this year is expected to grow more slowly than world economic output for the first time in 15 years. That slowdown has been largely attributed to a collapse in global demand, but economists are worrying more about the role of protectionism — or rather the risk posed if it accelerates and takes new forms.“
- „Roberto Azevêdo, director-general of the World Trade Organisation, says countries are turning to the wrong medicine to cure the slow growth many are facing. As a result they are falling into a ‚cut and paste‘ pattern of protectionist in which governments emulate each other in introducing restrictions.“
- „Among the best examples of that, he says, are domestic content rules such as the ‚Buy America‘ provisions in the US. These have exploded since the crisis and require governments to prefer domestic products, whether steel for a bridge or shoes for the military.“
- „Experts say protectionism is becoming increasingly difficult to measure. Douglas Irwin, an economic historian at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, argues that the ‚world is seeing far more below-board protectionism‘ in the form of new rules for labelling which put foreign competitors at a disadvantage.“
- „(…) the IMF’s chief economist, argues that efforts by governments to protect industries from outside competition driven by the 2008 crisis have become significant for the global economy. (…) ‚The pie is smaller and so countries chip away at certain sectors.‘„
- „G20 countries alone had introduced almost 820 trade-distorting measures affecting the trade in metals such as steel, copper and aluminium since 2008, GTA found in its latest report.“
- „US technology companies view the ‚Great Firewall of China‘, the system Beijing uses to control its citizens’ access to the internet, as the world’s biggest trade barrier.“
- „The firewall is ostensibly to protect China’s population against pornography and anything the ruling Communist party deems sensitive. But the blocking of brands like Facebook, Twitter or Reuters prevents western internet groups and media conglomerates from competing in China while allowing domestic counterparts, including internet search engine Baidu or state-owned news agency Xinhua, to thrive.“ – bto: So hat übrigens Indien erfolgreich die Grundlage für eine sehr erfolgreiche IT-Industrie gelegt.
- „The consensus among economists is still that the sort of protectionism seen since the 2008 crisis is a far cry from what was seen in the 1930s.“
- „A concerted effort over the past 70 years to reduce tariffs, and the changes to rules that came with the creation of the WTO in the 1990s, has helped avoid another disastrous brush with protectionism, says Bernard Hoekman, director of global economics at the European University Institute. And, for all the documented protectionism in recent years, ‚we are still in a much more liberal place than we were in the past‘.“
- „But Mr Evenett argues that too many people have failed to recognise the advent of a new era of protectionism. The consequences, he claims, will be with us for years as governments are always unwilling to be the first to unwind protections. ‚What you end up with, quite frankly,‘ he says, ‚is an elaborate game of chicken, waiting for each government to blink.‘„– bto: Und das werden sie.
bto: In der Eiszeit werden die protektionistischen Bemühungen immer offener zu Tage treten.